Expert answers questions Lydia IONOVA, therapist, cardiologist, nutritionist, director of the "Dr. Ionova Clinic"
BEFORE: Everyone knows about the dangers of cholesterol, fatty foods are a direct way to increase its level in the blood. But vegetable oil is also fat, and high-calorie.
LEE: First of all, animal fat is harmful to health, as it contains a lot of saturated and low unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, a balanced diet is a diet rich in vegetable, rather than animal fats, and contains moderate amounts of cholesterol.
Of course, a measure is needed in everything: and if you start to consume too many healthy vegetable oils, you will naturally get extra calories that will be deposited in the form of your own fat, and this will lead to an increase in cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. That is why balance and moderation are key principles of a healthy diet.
BEFORE: The Mediterranean diet is gaining more and more supporters, and one of its main components - olive oil - is generally recommended as almost a medicine. Is it true that olive oil lowers bad cholesterol and boosts good?
LEE: The Mediterranean diet is primarily a variety of plant foods: vegetables, pasta and cereals, fruits - and a rather rare consumption of red meat, only a few times a month. Therefore, you can not consider only olive oil as the "golden key" of the Mediterranean diet. This is a combination of various nutritional factors - a lot of fiber from plant foods, a lot of antioxidants from it, wine, fish and seafood, and, of course, polyunsaturated fatty acids from olive oil.
But any vegetable oil (except palm and coconut) contains unsaturated fatty acids, vital for humans every day. And sunflower too! Therefore, to reduce the "bad" cholesterol and increase the "good", it is important to rebuild the entire human nutrition system, and not rely on one of its components, even if this component is the most useful, first cold pressed olive oil.
DO: The most common vegetable oil in our country is sunflower. What are its beneficial properties and is it harmful to fry food on it? What fat is generally better to cook on?
LEE: In order for any vegetable oil to retain its beneficial properties, it must remain in its natural form, and not be exposed to temperature effects. People who adhere to the principle of a healthy diet, fried foods should be eaten only occasionally and, of course, not every day.
Therefore, if you want to maintain health, reduce the amount of cooking oil (you can use a culinary spray for these purposes), and switch to other, more useful ways of cooking: stewing, baking, stewing
Which oil to choose?
DO: Now on sale you can find a variety of types of vegetable oils - cedar, walnuts, pumpkin, corn, etc. Do they have any particularly useful properties and in what quantity and quality it is better to use them?
LEE: The more varied the oils in your diet, the healthier it is. Their standard amount is that vegetable fats should be more than 20% of the total calorie intake, and animals should be less than 10% of the total calorie content. Moreover, these percentages include not only a separate oil that you add to food, but all oils are taken into account - from cereals, vegetables, nuts and all other food.
DO: Do we need to use refined oils at all? Are there any benefits from them?
LEE: Refined oils do not have a sharp specific smell or strong taste, they look attractive - transparent, without any sediment. These oils are used for frying. In terms of composition, they are rather poor, and practically no useful substances were preserved in them after processing.
And unrefined oils contain additional beneficial substances - phospholipids, which are useful for the central nervous system and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis.
DO: The most unhealthy fats are palm oil and trans fats. But now they are added not only to confectionery, but even to ice cream and dairy products. It is said that harmful palm oil has penetrated even into baby food. Is it possible to avoid a “meeting” with them?
LEE: Palm and coconut oils are similar in composition to animal fat: they contain a lot of saturated fatty acids that are harmful to health, and few unsaturated, that is, useful. Therefore, their use can cause the same harm as the use of lard, fatty meat and other animal fats, namely: increase the risk of cardiovascular, oncological diseases, obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome.
Trans fats are one of the most harmful types of fats found in margarine, spreads, condensed milk
Interesting facts Pine nut oil contains appetite suppressants. It needs to be consumed little by little - mixed with other vegetable oil for dressing. The effect occurs after 30 minutes and lasts for 4 hours. When the manufacturers of vegetable oils on the label write: “Without cholesterol”, keep in mind that this is just an advertising ploy, since cholesterol is animal fat, and in vegetable oil it simply doesn’t may be contained.
Types of vegetable oils and their properties
|Cold pressed sunflower oil is no less useful than olive oil: it contains about 60% polyunsaturated acids.||Olive oil is remarkably absorbed by the body. But it has a slight choleretic effect, so it should be limited in case of gastroduodenitis and diseases of the gallbladder.|
|Along with valuable fatty acids, walnut oil is rich in bioactive substances. It is not inferior to him, but in some ways even superior to cedar oil. But only with moderate use - no more than half a tsp. in a day.||Pumpkin oil improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, stimulates the function of the kidneys, and helps to remove harmful substances from the body.|
|Grape seed oil contains a record amount of vitamin E - one teaspoon can satisfy the body's daily need for this vitamin.||Avocado oil is high-calorie, but at the same time dietary, contains substances that help to remove "bad" cholesterol from the body. Very good for the skin!|