What is the essence of pension reform
How is our pension calculated now?
Now the old-age labor pension for those born in 1967 and later consists of two parts - insurance and funded. Both of these parts are formed by employer contributions to the Pension Fund, which is 22% of the salaries of insured citizens. Of these, 16% go to the insurance part and 6% to the funded part. What does it mean?
Here is an example: if your official salary is 1000 rubles, then the employer's expenses for your pension insurance are 220 rubles. per month. Accordingly, if the salary is 10,000 rubles, contributions increase to 2,200. That is why it is beneficial for the employer that the official salary is minimal. The money you receive is “clean,” pension insurance contributions are not reflected.
In the Pension Fund, employer contributions are divided into three unequal parts: 6% + 10% + 6% = 22%
The first part - 6% (that is, 60 rubles. If your salary is 1000 rubles per month) - this is a fixed base part.
The second share (10%) is the insurance part of the pension, it is reflected in your personal account and in letters that come by mail every year. Every year, the state adjusts this amount to reflect inflation.
The third part (6%) is the funded part of the pension. This money works in the economy - for example, invested in production. The State Management Company Vnesheconombank is engaged in this. Every year, the funded part increases due to this very profit, and, of course, due to new contributions from the employer and your personal contributions, if you decide to make them.
What to do with the funded part?
The funded part of the pension is the money that you can really manage at your discretion. You can write a statement and transfer money to a non-state pension fund (NPF) or a management company (UK) - private or public. You can apply for transfer to the FIU until December 31, 2015 inclusive. In the meantime, until you make a choice (that is, you remain “silent”), all contributions will go to the insurance part of the pension. For those who until January 1, 2016 will not announce their wishes, the full contributions will go to the insurance part. True, the opportunity to re-make a choice every 5 years is now being discussed.
How to increase your pension
If you do not decide, then the funded part of your pension will not be 6%, but only 2% (that is, instead of 60 rubles per 1000 rubles of salary - 20 rubles). The difference will not disappear, it will go to the insurance part.
It is the insurance part that largely determines the size of the future pension and depends on the size of the salary. Payments are calculated as follows: the amount of pension capital accumulated in the insurance part is divided by the estimated number of months during which you will receive a pension (the time of "survival" in 2013 is 228 months). A fixed base amount of the insurance part of the pension is added to the result. His state is guaranteed to add to everyone who leaves for a retirement pension (he is indexed annually and at the beginning of 2013 amounted to 3610 rubles). All that will turn out in total will constitute the insurance part of the retirement pension. To this we will add the funded component (which is calculated similarly to the insurance part: the amount accumulated in the account is divided by the term "survival") - and we will receive the full amount of the monthly pension.
The retirement age for normal working conditions is still the same: 55 years for women and 60 for men.
Who is entitled to a pension?
To earn the right to receive an old-age retirement pension, you need to: reach retirement age, gain insurance experience of 15 years or more and accumulate at least 30 pension points. For 1 point, the amount of insurance premiums paid to the Pension Fund with a salary of 1 minimum wage for 1 year is taken. At the same time, later retirement is considered to be “voluntary”, but in fact it is an increase in the retirement age. And citizens who have not worked out the necessary length of service will receive a social pension.
In recent years, in almost all countries of the world, state pensions have been declining due to natural demographic reasons. We are traditionally used to hoping that the state will provide us with a decent old age. Nevertheless, now our compatriots have the opportunity to create their own pension capital. What needs to be done for this? It is very important to plan personal finances, and you need to do this while you are of working age.
The state pension is designed to provide only the minimum human needs. But what goes beyond this framework, we will have to take care on our own.
How to increase a pension?
- Increase official revenue. Please note: as soon as your official income exceeds 415 thousand rubles. cumulatively since the beginning of the year, deductions for retirement will cease until next year. For example, if you get 40 thousand per month, then your employer will deduct 20% of your retirement income all year. And if you get 100 thousand rubles, then deductions will stop in May, when the salary on an accrual basis will exceed 415 thousand rubles.
- Transfer the funded part of the pension from the state management company to a private asset management company or to private pension funds in order to increase the return on investment.
- Create your own retirement capital. Bank deposits (deposits), voluntary pension schemes for non-state pension funds, mutual funds (UIFs) and even investments in precious metals will help you here.
What will change in 2015?
Starting January 1, 2015 The amount of the pension will be calculated on the basis of points and coefficients. For the first time, the concept of “annual pension coefficient” is introduced (the ratio of your salary to the maximum salary in the region). The higher the salary of a citizen, the greater will be his annual ratio. In addition, the value of the coefficient will depend on the tariff for the formation of the funded part of the pension.
As a result, all the coefficients will be summed up, and a fixed state payment will be added to them. Retiring later will be more profitable. If you delay retirement by 5 years, then the fixed payment will increase by 36%, and insurance - by 45%; and if you work 10 years more, then the fixed payment will increase 2.11 times, the insurance part - 2.32 times.
For those who worked before 2015, all formed pension rights will remain: the state will convert them into individual pension coefficients.
Let's calculate the pension by examples. Suppose, Ivanov, the employer pays minimum contributions - from 2 minimum wages or 10,400 rubles. If the husband retires at the age of 60, having 40 years of experience, he will be paid monthly 9555 rubles, but if he postpones rest for three years (respectively, age 63 years, experience 43 years), his pension will be slightly higher - 11,656 rubles. The wife retires at 55 (experience 30 years), and she was charged 7554rub. per month, and if you delayed her retirement for 3 years, you get 9178 rubles. Petrovs get the average salary in the country is about 27,000 rubles. At 63, the husband will retire with an income of 17,018 rubles, and at 60, he would receive 13888 rubles. At 55, his wife will receive a pension of 13839 rubles, and at 58 - 16957 rubles. Sidorovs earn more than 60 thousand rubles. At 60, the husband can count on 28360 rubles, and at 63 years - 34933 rubles. At 55, the wife will receive 2138 rubles, and at 58, her pension will be 26735 rubles.